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jueves, 15 de junio de 2006

Las ushutas de Illapa (cuento)

Por: Cusi Ckóllur*
Enero de 1.550. El valle silencioso, mudo testigo de extraños visitantes. Por el lado este de la montaña, cruzando los valles Calchaquíes, el conquistador Juan Núñez de Prado avanza. Viene del Cuzco y se dirige hacia el reyno del Tucma, región que el Inca Guaynacava, señor natural de los reynos del Perú, no pudo jamás sojuzgar, por ser muy bravos los naturales del lugar. **

Indios escondidos entre el follaje de los árboles espiando. En silencio, miran pasar esta cadena de legendarios gigantes que bajan desde las altas cumbres y ahora recorren el llano.

Sinchy Huayra (viento fuerte) pega un salto y ya está en el suelo. Pone la oreja en la tierra, asustado por lo que escucha, sale corriendo y exhala un grito que se propaga por toda la comarca. ¡Amuncu! ¡Amuncu! (¡vienen! ¡vienen!)

Kuntur Ñahui (ojo de cóndor) reflexiona: ¿Serán los mismos que pasaron por aquí hace varios años, esos hombres con tubos que truenan? Por aquí han pasado montados en unas bestias y vestidos con trajes relucientes como la luna. Tenemos noticias de que vencieron al Inca. Si, mataron a Atahualpa, nada menos que al hijo del sol y ahora llegan a estos lugares. ¿Nos matarán como al Inca? Sabemos que él les dio todo el oro que pedían. Igual lo mataron. Y nosotros que no tenemos las riquezas que ellos tienen. ¿A qué vendrán?

El más anciano de todos, Piña Uturuncu (tigre bravo) recuerda como los enfrentaron, con flechas envenenadas, las prepararon tal como les enseñaron sus amigos del Mishqui Mayu, los tonocotés. Aquí han quedado, en tierra norteña, los huesos de muchos de esos hombres blancos, les comenta.

En ese momento el chasqui Illapa (rayo), poncho al viento y ushutas gastadas, llega corriendo y anuncia:
Preguntan por la ciudad de los Césares, Trapalanda, Elelín, Yungulo, Paitítí, el país de la sal. Tienen la cara pálida y los cabellos amarillos, algunos llevan barba. Sus cuerpos relucen al sol. Parecen estar enfermos porque claman ¿Dónde está el oro? ¡ORO! Gritan. Sus ojos chispean amenazantes y enloquecidos desvainan sus espadas. Esto me lo dijeron en quichua por medio del lenguaraz que los acompaña.

Ante esta situación deciden reunir al consejo de guerreros. Mensajeros con la noticia van por toda la región. Un grupo de chasquis, encabezado por Illapa, gritando a viva voz recorre las distintas tribus. Hay un revuelo de plumas y boleadoras acompañando los gritos de guerra que como un eco atraviesan la montaña. En el valle, empiezan a movilizarse las naciones indias. Retumban tambores de lucha. Caciques de distintas tribus vestidos con ponchos, túnicas, taparrabos, vinchas, plumas irizadas, penachos multicolores, llegan portando cetros, hachas de piedra pulida, arco y flechas a la espalda, boleadoras y hondas en la cintura. Un hechicero vestido con cueros de tigre con cabeza embalsamada, pulseras con sonajeros diversos, bailando danzas rituales, avanza. Es el Cacanchic. Viene masticando sus conjuros.

El valle de Gualán comienza a poblarse.

El Chasqui Illapa, se emociona al ver que el esfuerzo que hizo no fue en vano. Descansando junto al tronco de un árbol, reflexiona: Tengo el presentimiento que esta vez va a ser distinto. Parece que vienen a quedarse, porque traen esclavos negros, muchas gallinas, perros, bolsas con semillas, y armas con vómitos de serpientes de fuego. Eso he podido ver. Hablaré con Mayu Rumi, (piedra del río) aquel anciano diaguita, que de joven, siempre me aconsejó. Le comentaré mis temores. El, por viejo, sabe mucho.

Mayu Rumi, al escucharlo, le contesta preocupado. No ha de ser para nuestro bien que vienen. Nosotros vivimos sin que nada nos falte. Recuerdas lo que le hicieron a Camanico?** Le han dicho que vienen en son de paz. Yo no les creo. Siempre hay codicia en el hombre blanco, lo sé. Hombre blanco, anchallulla (muy metiroso)

Mayu Rumi, prosigue sus reflexiones. Aquí vivimos tranquilos. El guanaco y la llama son nuestros ganados, en las chacras el maíz que cosechamos nos repartimos entre todos, tenemos nuestros llamcas y mampas, como en los tiempos del “inga”, ellos nos enseñaron a sembrar, a tener nuestros regadíos, también a dividir el trabajo y repartimos lo que producimos. En nuestras tinajas y pucus almacenamos semillas para cuando venga el frío, en ciertas ocasiones estos nos sirven para guardar los huesos de nuestros seres queridos. Preguntamos a la luna cuando vamos a sembrar y a cosechar, sabemos que no es lo mismo luna nueva que luna llena, cada uno de nosotros es la mitad del otro, eso nos enseñaron los ingas ... Si es cierto que peleamos pero sólo cuando nos sentimos invadidos. Y esta vez es así. Por eso me parece bien que luchemos. Por lo menos que nos tengan miedo.

Mientras esto iba diciendo Mayu Rumi, Illapa, cansado por el trajín, se queda dormido.
A Mayu Rumi no le importa. Es como si hablara consigo mismo. Cae la tarde. Ahora mirando el firmamento, admirado por su grandiosidad, afirma: los astros son nuestros dioses mayores. Nosotros con sólo observar el alto cielo tenemos todos los conocimientos necesarios para vivir. ¿Para que más? En el horizonte se unen el cielo y la tierra. Observando el planear de las aves y la quietud del viento, sabemos si habrá cambios de tiempo. Nuestra tierra es nuestro lecho, nuestra morada, nuestro sustento. El cielo es nuestro techo, las estrellas nuestra guía y orientación en la noche, nuestro sol es la vida, la fecundación, la fuerza. Conocemos todos los misterios del bosque y tememos a sus dioses tutelares. No es lo mismo ruido que silencio... ¿Cómo serán los dioses de ellos?

Illapa se despierta sobresaltado. El anciano indio todavía está sentado junto al tronco del tacko(algarrobo).

He soñado cosas terribles, le dice. Soñé que entraba en un gran remolino, donde había ríos de sangre y una gran oscuridad. El tata Inti nos había abandonado. Ya casi al final del túnel me encontré con un maravilloso vergel, de verdes campos por donde pasaba una bestia veloz echando humo y tronando, también había pájaros de metal que volaban bien alto llevando personas y lo más raro era que las voces de los runas salían de cualquier parte. Si hasta mis ushutas habían desaparecido. Un gran cuero me llegaba hasta las rodillas. Y no era de piel de guanaco.

Diciendo esto, Illapa, se sube a un árbol a otear en la lejanía.

El monte es un buen escondite mientras pasa el invasor. Durante la noche se acercará para observarlos de cerca.

Del otro lado del río, caciques, curacas, mandones, en silencio, alrededor del fuego, observan el crepitar de las llamas.

El primero en romper el silencio es el Indio Súmaj Anka (Gavilán Hermoso): Un mundo nuevo se viene. No podemos ir contra la leyenda. Ya lo anunciaron los maestros amautas del Tahuantinsuyu, hace muchos años. Ellos decían que hombres extraños arribarían por el mar, someterían a estos pueblos y azolarían el paisaje edénico del bosque. También decían que destruirían el altar del dios Viracocha en el Inti Huasi (casa del sol) y nos harían conocer otros dioses. ¿Cómo serán esos dioses? ¿Serán tan malos como el dios trueno? Cuando el se enoja tiemblan hasta las montañas. Pero él es nuestro guaca, el tiene el poder de hacer llover, granizar, tronar y todo lo que pertenece al reino del aire, allí donde se hacen los nublados.

Ckasi Yacu(agua Tranquila): estos seres tan extraños que parecen bajar del Hanaj Pacha, (alto cielo) seguro que no son dioses, comen, duermen y hasta se mueren como nosotros. Eso me contó el chasqui Illapa, cuando anduvo por el sur. Parece que también hasta allí llegaron, viniendo por el mar. Fundaron una ciudad que le llamaron del Buen Ayre o algo así.

Illapa que recién llega, asiente con la cabeza.

Al día siguiente, en la madrugada, retumban tambores de lucha. El cacique mayor Púrej Huayra (Viento caminante), en el medio de todos, vistiendo un plumaje esplendoroso, habla así a su pueblo:
Hermanos sinchihuaynas (valerosos): aymarás, calchaquíes, diaguitas, chiriguanos, juríes, lules, sanavirones, tonocotés, matacos, guaycurúes, avipones, , tobas, mocovíes. Los invasores avanzan. Debemos unir nuestras fuerzas para vencerlos. Luchemos. Resistamos. Venceremos. No olviden: Somos soberanos de este suelo! ¡Por el tata Inti, por la Pachamama!
(de fondo de escuchan gritos de guerra: ¡¡¡huija, huija, huija!!!, ¡¡¡huija, huija, huija!!!)

Los principales caciques se arrodillan frente a un montículo de piedras o apacheta e invocan a la diosa mayor:
- ¡Pachamama,ashpap maman, ama paquéjchu huasiycuta ckari yúraj .
(¡¡Madre tierra, madre de la tierra, no permitasque el hombre blanco destruya nuestra casa.)
- ¡Tata Inti, nockaycu huaasniyqui mañasuycu!
Padre Sol, nosotros tus hijos, te imploramos!!)
Con voz atronadora y blandiendo las duras lanzas imploran mirando al hanaj pacha (Alto cielo) invocan a los dioses tutelares de la naturaleza.
- ¡¡Oh, dioses protectores, no nos abandonen en manos de los invasores!!!
- ¡Que no desnuden nuestros bosques, que no devoren nuestros pueblos, con sus cantos de trueno, que no nos exterminen!!!
- ¡Amalaya, llajtaraycu cáusay, amalaya! (Ojalá nuestro pueblo viva, ojalá)

El brujo de la tribu, el Cacanchic se pone al frente de las naciones indias, de una gran tinaja bebe un poco de aloja, bebida con fermento dulzón hecha de algarrobas, y en danza ritual propiciatoria, enciende un cigarro en chala. Ahora aspira el humo hipnótico y en trance ya, trata de interpretar las figuras de que se expanden por el aire:
Veo un gran cambio en nuestro pueblo. Tiempo de borrasca y violencia despiadada. Nuestro caminar se vuelve incierto. Estemos atentos para escribir con sangre, aun en la derrota. Nuestra patria india nos llama. Debemos cumplir el mandato supremo de resistir. Tratemos que éste no sea el camino de la muerte...

Illapa, que ha presenciado impávido desde la copa de un quebracho, piensa que nada será obstáculo para sus andanzas. Nació y vivió libre. Ama su suelo natal. Cierto que muchas veces se fue bien lejos, pero también es cierto que volvió. Con sus manos sacude el polvo de sus ushutas y decide emprender nuevos rumbos. No estará aquí cuando llegue el invasor. No me someteré. Ya veo como están de sometidos mis hermanos, los yanacunas del Perú que acompañan la caravana que acaba de acampar. No, no quiero para mí, el mismo destino. Ya lo tengo decidido. Pero, ¿ a dónde iré que no estén ellos? Están por todos lados. Ya sé, me iré allá donde el sol se pierde en el horizonte. Pero volveré. ¡ Ay, si tan solo pudiera viajar en las alas del tiempo!. Con que gusto pediría a los dioses caminar en la sangre de los que vienen y así poder ser testigo de los cambios que se avecinan. ¿Qué será de mi tierra y de mi gente dentro de 450 años?
Vocabulario:
  • *Cusi Ckóllur - (Estrella Feliz) princesa incaica quien vive un apasionado pero trágico romance con el soldado Rumi Ñahui (Ojo de Piedra). El escritor santiagueño Ricardo Rojas los inmortaliza en una obra de teatro llamada Ollantay.
  • **Roberto Levelliers: Probanzas de Méritos y servicios de los conquistadores. T.I. Edit. Madrid – 1.919
  • ¡Amuncu, amuncu!: ¡vienen, vienen!
  • Reino del Tucma: lugar del legendario y poderoso cacique cacique Tucma, del pueblo de Tucmanahaho(nombre compuesto que deriva del nombre de dicho cacique y de aldaho, que en lengua kakana quiere decir pueblo), hoy es el pueblo de Piedra Pintada, a orillas del Río Calchaquí. Tucma, Tucuna, en lengua quichua significa algo que se ha de acabar y en lengua cuzqueña hacia dónde se acaba. Se llamaba así una vasta región hacia el sur del Perú y de la actual Bolivia, pasados los Andes, que los incas primero y los conquistadores después, denominaron Tucma, de lo que se deriva lo que hoy se llama Tucumán.
  • Lenguaraces: así le decían a los indios que oficiaban de traductores. En este caso, oficiaban de traductores los indios yanacunas, del Perú.
  • Mishqui mayu: Río Dulce
  • Anchallulla: muy mentiroso
  • Cuzco: significa ombligo, porque los incas pensaban que el Cuzco era el centro del mundo y por eso el Cuzco era la ciudad sagrada, la ciudad del sol.
  • Inca: era la máxima autoridad del imperio, descendiente del sol, dueño de la vida y de la muerte de sus súbditos. Usaba una majestad deslumbrante con vestidos finísimos de algodón y plumas de aves raras, vajillas riquísimas de oro, plata y piedras preciosas.
  • Amautas: eran los maestros y sabios en el imperio incaico. Estaban encargados de enseñar las tradiciones sobre todo a los nobles y a los hijos del sol.
  • Tahuantinsuyu: así se llamaba el imperio de los incas que significaba los cuatro estados unidos: al norte el chinchausuyu, al sur el collasuyu, al este el antisuyu, al oeste el Cuntisuyu.
  • Viracocha: divinidad superior o Dios supremo, señor universal y creador de todo: el sol, la tierra, los hombres. El inca Pachacútec difundió el culto a Viracocha porque había tenido una revelación donde le decía que los hombres le debían de obedecer por ser el señor universal que está por encima de todos los demás dioses, incluso el mismo inti o dios sol.
  • Inti huasi: casa del sol
  • Anaj Pacha: alto cielo.
  • Llamcas: trabajos – trabajando
  • Mampas: agua corriendo, regadío, por extensión.
  • Pucus: plato
  • Inga: inca
  • Runas: hombres
  • Hombre blanco: con la Entrada de Diego de Rojas en 1.543, llega el europeo a la región de lo que hoy es Santiago del Estero. Dado el color de su piel, el nativo le llamó hombre blanco.
  • Guaca o huaca: divinidad, templete.
  • Pachamama: madre de la tierra o más propiamente tierra madre. Deidad femenina de origen aymará que alcanzó gran difusión en el incario. Toda la naturaleza es su templo pero las apachetas configuran el centro de su culto. Son montones de piedras que construyen los viajeros y arrieros a orillas del camino. Allí se depositan las ofrendas que consisten en coca o llicta, el acuchico, chicha, aloja u otra bebida fermentada. Puede propiciársela dándole de beber, comer o fumar.
  • ¡I amalaya llajtaraucu, cáusay, amalaya!: ¡Ojalá nuestro pueblo viva, ojalá!


    Bibliografía:
  • Fray Eudoxio de Jesús Palacio (Mercedario): Cuarto Centenario de Santiago del Estero. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán. República Argentina.- 1.950
  • Fray Eudoxio de Jesús Palacio: (Mercedario): A las orillas del Río Dulce. Santiago del Estero, 1.953
  • Achával, José Néstor: Historia de Santiago del Estero. Siglos XVI – XIX – Ediciones Universidad Católica de Santiago del Estero. 1.988
  • Instituto Superior del Profesorado Provincial N°1: Primeras Jornadas de Historia de Santiago del Estero. Octubre de 1.980.- Imprenta y Boletín oficial de la provincia de Santiago del Estero. (R.A)
  • López Alzogaray, Eduardo: La muerte camina por los campos de Pampáyoj. 14 relatos míticos. Santiago del Estero, 1.988
  • Bernardo Canal Feijóo: Mitos perdidos - Compañía Impresora Argentina año 1.938
  • Bravo, Domingo: Episodios provincianos. Ediciones El Liberal. Santiago del Estero, 1.990 .-
    Colombres, Adolfo: Seres sobrenaturales de la cultura popular Argentina. Ediciones del Sol. 1.992.
  • Bazán, Armando Raúl: La cultura del Noroeste Argentino. Editorial Plus Ultra. Buenos Aires. 2.000
  • Pereyra, Oreste Edmundo: Al paso de los años.Centurias enla Madre de Ciudades Santiago del Estero, 2.001. Imprenta Quipu.
  • Ilda Juárez de Paz: Amuy quichuapi ‘rimasajcu (ven hablaremos quichua) – Santiago del Estero,1.995
  • Sayago de Biscione, Norma Esther: Un viaje al pasado prehispánico. Ediciones nuevos caminos. Diario El Liberal. Año1.998

-----------------------------------------------------------
Los dibujos han sido extraídos del libro: La epopeya del Tucumán, de Héctor D. Argañaraz. Santiago del Estero, 1.943

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